SALTS OF UNDECYLENIC ACID ( UNDECYLENATES )
The undecylenic acid (10-undecenoic acid), an eleven-carbon monounsaturated fatty acid is a naturally occurring fatty acid found in the castor oil bean (Ricinus communis) and as a product of human sweat glands. It is produced commercially through the vacuum distillation of castor bean oil and pyrolysis of ricinoleic acid . Since 1949, the undecylenate salts have been used as yeast and mold inhibitors in the food industry, and in medicine as topical and systemic antifungals .Following are the useful salts of Undecylenic acid.
POTASSIUM UNDECYLENATE (Potassium Salt of Undecylenic Acid)
Potassium salts of fatty acids are commonly called soap salts. They are used as insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and algaecides. Some potassium salts of fatty acids are used as multi-purpose food additives. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classifies them as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) .Potassium salts of fatty acids have been exempt from United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) tolerances for food and feed crops since 1982.
Potassium salt formation provides water solubility for the fatty acids. These salts are also called as insecticidal soap.It has also been approved in the United States for use against powdery mildew. In the European pesticide registration, its use as an insecticide is listed for aphids, white fly, and spider mites.At different concentrations, it may also be used against algae and moss.
Potassium salts of fatty acids can also be fungicidal. As with its insecticidal activity, fungicidal effects increase with additional carbon chain lengths. Greatest toxic effects occur at C10 or C11 then decrease. The undecylenic acid (10-undecenoic acid), an 11 Carbon monounsaturated fatty acid is a naturally occurring fatty acid.
Potassium / sodium Undecylenate is in the form of white powder, soluble in water. It can also be provided in liquid form .
CALCIUM UNDECYLENATE (Calcium Salt of Undecylenic Acid)
Calcium undecylenate is an extremely effective, well-tolerated, broad-spectrum antifungal. It is a calcium salt of undecylenic acid (UA) derived by the vacuum distillation of castor bean oil. Its an 11 carbon mono-unsaturated fatty acid (the antifungal properties of a medium chain fatty acid increases as the chain lengthens and peaks at 11 caprylic acid contains only 8 carbon chains). Several studies have demonstrated that undecylenic acid is 4-5 times as powerful an antifungal agent as caprylic acid in the same dosage.
Calcium Undecylenate is a White fine powder Practically insoluble in water, in ether, in alcohol, in choloroform, in acetone, and in cold alcohol, slightly soluble in hot alcohol.
ZINC UNDECYLENATE (Zinc Salt of Undecylenic Acid)
Zinc Undecylenate has been shown to be an effective antifungal agent and is the active ingredient in many topical over-the-counter antifungal preparations. Undecylenic acid has been shown to be approximately six times more effective in its antifungal action than caprylic acid. Undecylenate salts have been shown to possess as much as four times the fungicidal effect of undecylenic acid, and may be over 30 times more effective than caprylic acid.
The results from in vitro and iv vivo tests proved the strong antifungal activity of zinc undecylenate salts against plant pathogenic fungi.
Zinc Undecylenate is a White fine powder. Practically insoluble in water, ethanol (96%) in ether.All these salts i.e. Potassium / sodium / zinc / calcium salts have a strong antifungal effect and can be very effective plant protection remedy. They can be used as insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and algaecides. These salts can be very effectively used in commercial fungicide plant protection formulations and products, applicable in organic agriculture and integrated pest management systems.